Generally, you will get the best RTK/PPK solutions using two matched receivers, one as rover, and one as a local base. This will give you the shortest baseline, maximum number of usable constellations, and no issues with the Glonass hardware biases that come from using unmatched receivers. To do this, you will first need to determine the precise location of your local base receiver. Running a post-processed kinematic (PPK) solution with your own local base receiver as rover and a nearby Continuous Operating Reference Station (CORS) as base is usually the easiest way to do this.
Of course, If you have a CORS station near enough, it is also possible to run solutions directly from your rover to the CORS base but I generally opt for the local base since the solutions will be more accurate and more robust.
For the most part, running a PPK solution against a CORS base is very similar to the local base solutions I describe in many of my other posts but there are a few important differences that I will try to go over in this post. I will describe using CORS stations inside the U.S. with u-blox receivers and the demo5 RTKLIB code since this is what I am most familiar with, but most of the information in this post will apply to other receivers as well as to CORS stations in other countries.
The first step is to find a nearby CORS station. In the U.S, the easiest way to do this is to go to the NOAA User Friendly CORS website and click on the CORS Map link. Zoom into your local area and if you are lucky you should see something like the screen shot below with several nearby choices. If you’re not so lucky you may find only one or two distant choices.
Notice that some stations are GPS only and some are labelled as “GNSS” which indicates that they support multiple constellations, usually GPS and Glonass, but sometimes Galileo as well. Ideally you will find a “GNSS” site within 20 kilometers but if not you may be successful generating fixed solutions with stations up to 100 km or more away. If you are using a dual frequency receiver and solving for a stationary rover you can usually use more distant stations. Be aware that longer baselines will increase accuracy errors so it is a good idea to run longer solutions and average the results from multiple stations if possible. Station sample rate is less important than distance and number of constellations but a higher sample rate is always better if you have the choice.
In addition to the NOAA CORS website, it is also worth checking if your state has its own network of reference stations. These are usually run by the state department of transportation and their data is normally free although you may need to sign up to access it. There is a slightly dated state by state list available here.
If your base station is sampling slower than a 1 second rate then I often find that interpolating between base observation samples improves the solution. In RTKPOST, this is done by setting enabling “Time Interpolation of Base Station Data” in the “Misc” tab of the options menu. In RNX2RTKP, this is done by setting “misc-timeinterp =on” in the config file.
Assuming your rover is stationary, you can run the solution mode as “Static” and this will improve your chance of getting a fixed solution. I prefer to run a “Kinematic” solution if possible, however, since the variation in solution position over time gives some insight into what the accuracy of the solution is, especially if you have collected several hours of observation data.
Since the receiver manufacturers will almost always be different between base and rover in these solutions, you will usually need to deal with the Glonass hardware biases. I describe the different options to account for these in detail in this post so I would recommend reading or reviewing that post for the details. To quickly summarize though, the simplest option is to set “Integer Ambiguity Resolution” in the options menu for Glonass to “Fix-and-Hold” in which case RTKLIB attempts to calibrate the biases. In some cases, this will be good enough to get a fixed solution. However, you are more likely to get a fixed solution if you account for the biases directly. You can do this by setting Glonass ambiguity resolution to the poorly named “Autocal” option and then specifying the biases directly with the “GLO HW bias” option in RTKPOST or “pos2-arthres2” option in the config file. Again, see the above post for the details on how to determine the correct biases and the table of biases by receiver manufacturer. Note that these ambiguity resolution options are only available in the demo5 version of the RTKLIB code.
If the HW biases for both base and rover are close to zero then it’s generally OK to ignore them and set Glonass ambiguity resolution to “on”. This will not be true for a u-blox M8T rover since it’s bias is not zero. However the u-blox F9P bias is close to zero so if you are using it as rover and your base receiver is manufactured by Trimble, Septentrio, Topcon, Spectra Physics, Javad, or Ashtec then go ahead and set Glonass ambiguity resolution to “on”. The receiver manufacturer will be listed in the header of the base rinex file.
The base rinex file header also includes the base antenna type and it’s precise location. Note that the precise location is in the header field labelled “APPROX POSITION XYZ”. Setting the base station position in the options menu to “RINEX Header Position” will cause this value to be used in the solution. If you would also like to include the base station antenna calibration in the solution, then check the “Antenna Type” box and specify “*” in the box below. This tells RTKLIB to use the antenna type listed in the rinex header. You will also need to point to an antenna calibration file in the “Files” tab of the options menu. You can use the “igs14.atx” file that is included with the demo5 binaries for this.
It is important to keep in mind that the accuracy of the solution is going to get worse as the distance to the base station increases as shown in this chart taken from a Novatel tutorial.
If you are using a single frequency receiver then there are usually no good alternatives to using a distant CORS station. The best you can do is collect multiple longer data sets from multiple stations and average the results. If you are using a dual frequency receiver then you also have the option of running a Precise Point Positioning (PPP) solution, either with RTKLIB or through an online service as I describe in this post.
Well, that’s all I can think of at the moment. If anyone else has any additional tips or questions, please add them to the comments below.